Technical Articles

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Snipcademy offers short, easy-to-follow
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Python: Introduction, Setup and Fundamentals

Learn what Python is, what it's used for, and how to set it up on your machine.

Steven Jo
Linux Command Line: Basic Commands

Learn fundamentals commands for the Command Line.

Steven Jo
DNA Sequencing Techniques

Learn about the different types of techniques used to sequence DNA. We'll go over everything from maxam gilbert sequencing, sanger ddNTP sequencing to shotgun sequencing.Get a gist of what DNA sequencing is, what types of molecules can be sequenced, what breadth of information comes out of DNA sequencers, and the types of sequencing approaches available. Learn about the very first DNA sequencing technique pioneered by Alan Maxam and Walter Gilbert in 1976. Learn how Sanger sequencing works, which relies heavily on the chemical properties of dideoxynucleotides (ddNTPs). Also learn the pros and cons of the technique. Learn how scientists deal with the disadvantage of having short reads by utilizing a method known as primer walking. Learn how to get around the limitations of pyrosequencing by incorporating all four nucleotides in one run with reversible chain terminators. Learn the technique they used to sequence genomes that haven't been sequenced before (de novo) with the shotgun sequencing method.

Steven Jo
Linux Command Line: Terminal Multiplexer (tmux)

Learn how to install and use tmux, a terminal multiplexer, in our beginner's guide tutorial.

Steven Jo
Git: Introduction

Learn about the history of git, as well as how to install it and configure global settings through our Git tutorials for beginners series.

Steven Jo
Introduction to Probability

Probability is used to quantify the randomness of a model's behavior. In this article, we'll go over the basics of probability including probability functions, random variables, sample and event spaces, addition and multiplication laws, the binomial distribution, conditional probability, expected value and odds to probabilities.

Steven Jo


Pairwise Alignment

Learn about how biological data is stored and transferred with different homology, scoring matrices and the global and local alignment algorithms.In this lesson, we'll go through what sequence / pairwise alignment is, how they are used in bioinformatics, look at PAM and BLOSUM matrices used to score alignments, and look at the techniques / algorithms used. Learn how to qualitatively describe two sequences that have a common ancestor the two terms of homology - orthology vs. parology. Homologs, orthologs and paralogs arise in gene duplication and speciation. Learn how to quantitatively describe how well two sequences are aligned with the identity and similarity (positives) parameters which are part of interpreting BLAST results. A beginner\'s guide on how to use NCBI protein BLAST, a powerful program used for local alignment. Let\'s look at how to perform pairwise alignments and search databases for a specific query. Learn about the Dayhoff model, which is used to score amino acid substitutions. Also find out about accepted point mutations (PAM) scoring matrices PAM1 and PAM250. Learn how to score gaps to perform analysis in pairwise alignments. Learn what the default scoring matrix for BLAST is - BLOSUM62. Find out how to construct one as a substitution matrix used to score pairwise alignments - BLOSUMs. Compare and find the difference between PAM and BLOSUM scoring and substitution matrices. In this tutorial, you'll learn how to use the Needleman-Wunsch algorithm to create a matrix and find the optimal alignment between two sequences. Learn how the algorithm behind local alignment works with the Smith and Waterman algorithm. 

Steven Jo
HTML 5: Text

Learning about HTML text elements including small and large, marked, delete, along with math and computer elements. Also go over what is a URL and how to place links.

Steven Jo
Linux Command Line: Environment

Learn all about your Linux shell environment - including variables, startup files and customization.

Steven Jo
Python: Primitive Data Types

Learn about Python's primitive data types includes booleans, numbers (int, float) and strings, along with their methods.

Steven Jo
JavaScript: Control Flow

control flow

Steven Jo
Bash Shell Scripting: Input and Output

Learn how to print to standard out, read from standard in and redirect standard in, out and error.

Steven Jo
Bash Shell Scripting: Looping

Learn how to write for, while, until loops on shell scripting for the Linux (bash). Also learn control flow techniques such as continue and break to direct your looping control flow.

Steven Jo
Data Structures: Graphs

Learn about graphs, a powerful data structure that makes use of nodes and edges.

Steven Jo
Random Forests

Steven Jo
HTML 5: Introduction

Follow our free tutorial on how to use HTML 5 and set up your first document! In this section, we'll go over HTML syntax, and the meta tag.

Steven Jo